During the World War II he participated in clandestine education at Warsaw University of Technologies. He was a prisoner of Auschwitz-Birkenau camp. After the war, between 1945 and 1947 he worked as a graphic designer in the Office of Capital's Reconstruction (Biuro Odbudowy Stolicy), special unit devoted to planning of post-war Warsaw reconstruction.
Zamecznik worked also as a scenographer, he designed logotypes, emblems exhibitions' scenography, and book illustrator.
In 1960s he was running the atelier of Photographic Design at the Academy of Fines Arts in Warsaw. That said, he remained in the official scene of Polish art. However, his creative works are described as opposed to requirements of socrealist propaganda. Unlike many of the art creators at that time, he concentrated on the form of his works, often nuancing the political message of the poster or book cover. His artwork is perceived as complicated and ambiguous, breaking with the dominant narrative. His journeys to the Western Europe as a designer working on Polish exhibitions enabled him to cope with the shortage economy and to get new materials for works.
Zamecznik was one of the finest representatives of Polish school of poster. He was one of the first graphic designers to use and re-use photographs in designing film and propaganda posters. However, in his art photography served not only as a part of graphic designing, but was a separate genre of artistic fulfilment. He exhibited his photographs at separate events, however a huge part of the thousands of his photographs remained unknown to wider public until Archeology of Photography Foundation re-discovered his figure in the 2000s.
- Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland
Dinu Zamfirescu (b. 26 June 1929 in Bucharest) became a victim of the communist regime after the takeover of power. He was detained on political grounds several times and expelled from the Faculties of both Law and History, where he was a student at the end of the 1940s. He was permitted to re-enroll and complete his law studies only in 1973. In Romania, he was unable to work in the field of his studies, being considered an "enemy of the people." For this reason he worked for many years until the 1970s on construction sites in Romania. Later, he joined the Pasteur Institute in Bucharest. In 1975 he settled in France after being bought by a sister who had settled there. In Paris he was actively involved in the organisation and activity of the Romanian exile community and worked as a BBC journalist. After the collapse of the communist regime in Romania, he returned to the country. He was one of the founders of one of the historical Romanian democratic parties, forbidden by the Communists, the National Liberal Party. He was among the founders of the Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes and the Memory of the Romanian Exile, which he headed, and he is currently a member of its Scientific Council. Since 2012 he has been a member of the Collegium of the National Council for the Study of the Securitate Archives.
- Bucharest, Romania
Gheorghe Zgherea (born in 1932, Văleni, Vulcănești district) was a person of peasant background who hailed from a moderately prosperous family with a strong tradition of religious dissent. Zgherea acquired the basic elements of primary education, attending the village school till the age of twelve (i.e., until 1944), which means his instruction took place in a Romanian educational institution. After the war, he worked in his parents’ household and then apparently joined the collective farm, together with his parents, in 1948. However, in December 1949, he became a member of the Inochentist community in his native village of Văleni. This decision probably resulted from a combination of his parents’ influence and example (their house was used as a gathering place for the group members) and the efforts of some of his relatives and acquaintances (notably the preacher Elena Ciobanu). In any case, it is obvious that family connections and local networks played a crucial role in Zgherea’s conversion. Upon his entering the community, he received a metal cross (a symbol of belonging to his new community) and some Inochentist texts. However, oral sermons held at the periodic assemblies of the faithful were the preferred mode of communication within the group. Within a year, by December 1950, Zgherea had advanced within the local Inochentist hierarchy to become a preacher himself. It appears that, after being consecrated as a preacher, he had to leave his village in order to propagate the Inochentist message in the neighbouring areas. Starting from early 1951, Zgherea became effectively an outcast within Soviet society, entering the underground network of Inochentist village preachers. He travelled (“roamed,” in Soviet parlance) through a number of villages in the southern and central regions of the MSSR, attempting to recruit new members and to spread his community’s radical religious views among the local peasants. He initially worked under the supervision of a senior “brother,” but in the summer of 1951 he became an independent preacher. Besides spreading the millenarian and eschatological message of his community, Zgherea also encouraged the peasants to ignore or reject the policies of the regime, to boycott the Party and the Communist Youth League, and to strictly abide by customary religious practices, including fasting periods. He especially emphasised the refusal to work on Sundays as a prerequisite for eternal salvation. His proselytising and recruitment efforts were not particularly impressive (he only managed to recruit three or four of his fellow villagers into the group). However, the Soviet authorities linked Zgherea’s case to a previous trial of six influential members of the movement, including several of his relatives and his recruiter, Elena Ciobanu. The existence of this clandestine network increased the alarm of the regime, which feared that Inochentism’s appeal in rural areas might undermine the hold of Soviet power on the peasantry. Zgherea was first arrested in December 1952, but managed to escape from police custody during his transportation to the police headquarters in Cahul. He was apprehended again on 2 May 1953 and, after a one-month-long inquiry, was sentenced to twenty-five years of hard labour and to five years of suspension of civil rights, according to articles 54-10, part 2, and 54-11 of the Penal Code of the Ukrainian SSR (“anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda and membership in an anti-Soviet organisation aimed at overthrowing, undermining or weakening Soviet power”). His sentence was revised downwards (to five years in a forced labour camp and three years of suspension of civil rights) in June 1955. He was subsequently amnestied according to the special decree of 27 March 1953 concerning the release of political prisoners. Zgherea was finally rehabilitated by the Supreme Court of Justice of the Republic of Moldova in December 2005. No further data about his fate after 1955 are available in his case file.
- Chișinău, Moldova
Osyp Zinkevych was a Ukrainian migrant, human rights activist, literary critic, founder of the human rights publishing house Smoloskyp and co-founder of several human rights organizations: Smoloskyp Organization for the Defence of Human Rights in Ukraine, Washington Helsinki Guarantees for Ukraine Committee, and the Committee for the Defence of Ukrainian Political Prisoners in the USSR.
As a young migrant student, Osyp Zinkevych set up a Ukrainian youth organization in Paris in 1950, and started a special column for the Ukrainian youth in the émigré newspaper “The Ukrainian Word” (Ukrainske Slovo), the main periodical of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. From around that time until his death, Zinkevych was the leading figure and the ideologue of Smoloskyp’s metamorphoses: from a column in a newspaper to an independent quarterly (1956), a publishing house in the US (1967), an information service (1967), a human rights organization (1970), and finally an international charitable foundation and a museum-archive in Kyiv (1998). Zinkevych was a member of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). Until his final breakup with the OUN(M), in 1974, he was a member of its governing body.
Osyp Zinkevych took an active part in the campaigns for human rights in Ukraine, organized a series of protest campaigns against political repression in Soviet Ukraine, and fought for the independent participation of Ukraine in the Olympic games. He cooperated with international human rights organizations (such as Amnesty International) and widely disseminated factual information on political repression and dissident movement in Ukraine.
- Baltimore, United States of America
- Kyiv City, Kiev, Ukraine 02000
- Paris, France